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In recent years several changes have been introduced in the incubation process. Incubators won automation of processes (such as automatic turning and humidity control), monitoring systems, and other technological improvements. There was also a great awareness that artificial incubation has many advantages in the control of poultry diseases. To achieve good results in artificial incubation, proper handling of eggs and a good use of the incubator is needed.

1. BEFORE STARTING INCUBATION
For each type of birds (domestic and exotic) there are specific incubation conditions, including temperature, humidity and days of incubation.
Recommendation for an incubation room
The incubation room is confined to the use of an incubator space. Given that this space environment has a significant effect on hatching rate, the temperature control will work where the incubator is recommended. Little noise and vibration in the surrounding area and the temperature must exist must remain between 20 ° C - 25 ° C (68-77 ° F) with a few variations.
Should pay special attention when there are large temperature range, ie, when the low night temperature suddenly compared with the daytime temperature. If this is the case, check the temperature often and do not forget that the incubator should not be the target of sun exposure during the hours of the day.
     
  The eggs before being incubated should also be kept in optimal conditions: temperature between 12 and 15 ° C and humidity between 60 and 75%.
 
Eggs for hatching
Select hatching eggs
An egg is fit for hatching when it is fertilized, but this does not imply that every fertilized egg can succeed. The result of incubation may vary depending on the condition of the egg. To be a good egg to incubate the parent birds must be in good health and nutrition. After the bird put the egg, it must be placed in the incubator until 7-10 days. Should be stored in an appropriate temperature between 12 and 15 ° C, optimum relative humidity of 70% and should be avoided direct sunlight before starting the incubation site.


Eggs should also be selected by the aspect. Must be avoided incubate the eggs which have cracked or have been chopped bark, are soiled or bloodstained, malformed or wrinkled, or have abnormal shape and size.
     
  Do not place eggs to incubate with cracks, because the likelihood of rot due to the proliferation of bacteria is large.
  Should always avoid mating between siblings, to decrease the probability of malformation.
  To achieve a greater number of eggs per bird, remove the eggs daily. Thus, the birds do not come in Chocolate and initiate new position a few days later.
  Check the date on which the egg was laid.
  A chicken to lay fertile eggs can still put in 10 to 15 days after removal of the male.
 
Sterilization of hatching eggs
Under natural conditions the eggs are often soiled with excrement. If these are used so there may be contamination of eggs due to the creation of bacteria. Therefore, it is advisable to sterilize contaminated with a sterilizer element (We recommend use of IPOCLOR. See more in the category of cleaning and disinfection) eggs.

     
  The right thing to do before each incubation disinfection / sterilization of eggs and the incubator.
  It is very important to have clean hands to catch the eggs that are placed in the incubator, as they have many bacteria that can develop and affect the process. The water temperature should be similar to the egg temperature to avoid thermal shock.
  It is advisable for good disinfectants for sterilization process eggs, incubator and hands.
 
2. CONDITIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INCUBATION
For each type of birds (domestic and exotic) there are specific incubation conditions, including temperature, humidity and days of incubation.
Days of incubation and temperature recommended (birds)
 
CHICKEN

duck

quail

pheasant

golden p.

goose

turkey

peacock
Days 21 28 17 23 23 30 28 28
TeMperature 37.5°C
(99.5°F)
37.5°C
(99.5°F)
37.7°C
(99.5°F)
37.7°C
(99.5°F)
37.5°C
(99.5°F)
37.5°C
(99.5°F)
37.5°C
(99.5°F)
37.5°C
(99.5°F)

Day of incubation and temperature recommended (parrots)
 
MACAw

CoCkAToo

AMAZONeS

love birds

AFRICAN grey

FALCon
Days 26-28 30 24-29 22-24 28 32
Temperature 37.1°C–37.2°C
(99.0°F)
37.1°C–37.2°C
(99.0°F)
37.1°C–37.2°C
(99.0°F)
37.1°C–37.2°C
(99.0°F)
37.1°C–37.2°C
(99.0°F)
37.1°C–37.2°C
(99.0°F)

     
  Attention! The user must be careful with regard to decreases in temperature of the eggs even when it is carrying for their inspection. The decreases in temperature at an early stage of incubation affect embryo development, interfering directly in the final results of births.
 
Relative humidity of air suitable for artificial incubation
The humidity of the incubation may be divided in phases: initial phase, the development phase and the final phase. However, it is more common to a division between the start of incubation moisture and humidity in the final phase corresponding to 2/3 days before hatching.
- There is big difference in humidity between the initial phase and the middle phase so the moisture can be the same. Most poultry requires higher humidity, about 65% in the final stage of the incubation period the designated hatching.
- The recommended humidity for the initial and middle stage are:
 
a) Birds: 40-50% relative humidity
b) Parrots: 35-45% relative humidity
c) Waterfowl: 45-55% relative humidity
The humidity should be with higher values ​​during the outbreak to prevent the thin layer that surrounds the embryo does not dry out or become tougher.
Therefore, it is best not to open the lid of the incubator where the eggs begin to hatch. The opening of the incubator causes a sudden lowering of moisture, and their recovery will be slow and time consuming birth affecting this period.
     
  Attention! Please refer specialized manuals for more information on appropriate incubation conditions.
  Attention! Incubations in a dry environment originate low percentages of hatching. Or embryos die between 16 and 19 days, are born small, malformed or stuck to the bark, because the tubes are too large.
 
3. THE INCUBATION
With the onset of incubation is also recommended inspection for eggs, to check their progress.
It is important at this stage to check if the turning of the eggs is happening correctly. It has to check the development through, for example, a targeting eggs and removing the eggs may not be evolving.
Turning the eggs
When the eggs are incubated, both ends are fixed.
If the egg is positioned without movement, the embryo will be pressed down and may damage it or you can give a chick with malformation due to insufficient rotation during the incubation period.
The period in which the eggs must be turned is usually 1-2 hours for most poultry, and its rotation should be carried out at 90 180 °. However, compared to the birds, the birds with short maturation as parrots, require a larger angle of rotation. The turning of the eggs must finish 2-3 days before they hatch
     
  The eggs will be hatched must also be turned to better retention, that is, before being placed in the incubator.
  The turning of the eggs is important so that there is no adhesion of the embryo to the shell. If your incubator does not automatically turn, must perform manually.
 
Development process and inspections of eggs (candling)
Eggs that have small cracks must be removed since it may have a bad smell and are more permeable to contamination by bacteria, namely, these eggs will eventually contaminate the other. To make candling the eggs using High Intensity Mira or equivalent is recommended.
2nd day after the onset of hatching begins to form a head with eyes, heart and blood vessels.
Day 4: The brain is divided, the heart becomes much larger and the blood vessels are wide open.
Day 6 (1st inspection): The blood vessels have the appearance of a spider. The wings and limbs begin to appear. The brain and the eyes become clear. The embryo begins to move.
Day 8: The brain is fully formed. The neck becomes larger and the wings and legs are separated.
Day 10: The wings and legs are completely separated from the rest of the body. Formed legs and feathers begin to grow.
Day 12 (2ª inspection): The blood vessels become even thicker. The embryo becomes much larger and begins listening for the first time. Penalties continue to grow. If the blood vessels are not visible or if there is no movement of the embryo, this could be an egg whose development stopped.
14th day: low head towards the stem is bent back to the left, so that the head is facing the air chamber. The feathers cover the entire body and head.
16th day: As the head moves down the right wing, he is in a good position to hatch.
Day 18 (3ª inspection): The embryo has a dark aspect except for a small tube. The amount of amniotic fluid decreases and chick prepares for hatching. The turn must be deactivated.
19th day: The tube becomes much larger and the yolk remains in the body. The dick goes in the direction of the tube and begins to breathe with lungs.
20th day: The yolk is completely absorbed by the body and becomes food for two to three days after hatching.
Day 21: The chick begins to peck at the shell of the egg, pushing it and turns to from all. This process takes about 12 hours. In low moisture process can be very difficult to paint.
     
  The candling aims to differentiate sterile eggs, dead embryos, growth tube and analyze the process of embryonic development.
  Frequent inspections may damage the incubation.
  During the day, do the inspection in a darkened room.
 
     
  During the inspection of the eggs, the ambient temperature is lower than the incubator is therefore advisable to make the inspection of the eggs in a heated enclosure. Be careful not to cause any impact on the eggs.
  During candling if not visible blood vessels or the embryo, it is an unfertilized egg and should be removed from the incubator.
  In dark or thick bark may be difficult to carry out the inspection of eggs, so we recommend the use of a mira-eggs high intensity
 
4. AFTER BIRTH
In this phase there has to be a concern to the early days of bird life depending on each species. The perfect conditions for heat, power and space should be given. It is very important that the brooder is clean and disinfected, to welcome the new pups preventing the proliferation of microorganisms.
Development
For development it is understood the process by which a chick breathe through their lungs for the first time, after having passed through a tube and has left the shell.
In the case of slow-growing birds, such as chickens, should stand in the incubator for 24 hours after hatching until the feathers are completely dry. They sleep without needing to be fed. Then they should move to the brooder or another space with appropriate conditions and fed water and adequate food. In the case of poultry recent maturation (birds that are born without fuzz), must be fed directly (with a weaning diet) and let them grow in a particular brooder and monitored for temperature and humidity until they eat they own. For these precious pups recommended specialized brooders (see more in the category brooders Exotic Birds)
In the early days must be prepared with a spot light and heat to maintain the temperature between 30 and 34 ° C. During the weeks the temperature must be reduced gradually adapted to move the piglets to the environment. In the case of short-maturing birds like parrots, continue to feed them a diet of weaning at an interval of 3 hours and keep the space clean. Spread sawdust or pieces of paper on the floor can prevent contamination of the bay.
     
  It is preferable to use a specialized poultry brooder like Rcom IBRD brooder for creating exotic birds.
  Be sure to consult professional designers or experts in creating parrots since it is not an easy process for a novice.
  Most birds, they suffer from polyphagia, eat all kinds of grains, plants and insects. However, for small chicks during the period that are in brooder is advisable to feed them with special food for their age
  The chicks die if they get wet because the body temperature drops suddenly. To prevent this, the designer must be careful to use a suitable container of water (first age drinkers).
 
Maintaining the incubator
Inside the incubator hatching will be used in conditions conducive to the spread of bacteria due to eggshell, plush chicks and other residues of the egg. For this reason, electronic parts, and heating equipment must be thoroughly clean and dry. Dust the control panel and sensors with a soft brush.
The inside of the incubator should be cleaned with a cloth or paper moistened with a disinfectant solution (We recommend using tablets Klorkleen. See more in the category of cleaning).
 
5. BIRDS FEED
Before hatching, the chicks have absorbed the yolk and therefore can go a day without any food. Over the next three days can be fed with powder boiled egg. After these days should start digesting cut vegetables.
Should give up water and change it frequently to keep it clean, so that the chicks are not left with any diseases.
 
     
  Can feed on quail , pheasants , golden pheasants , silver pheasants and chicks like .
  Ducks, geese and wild geese are omnivores , can feed them anything.
  Parrots eat all kinds of seeds , vegetables and fruits .
  The baby birds need an external heat source in the first days of life , it does not have a thermoregulatory mechanism of the own temperature .
  To avoid cannibalism among small birds ( pheasants , partridges , etc. . ) , You must provide them with hiding places and perches for resting ( vegetables , branches , foliage , etc. . ) . And provide them with a warming without illumination, as the ceramic lamp
  Keep feeders and waterers with bright colors , like red and yellow, because the birds are attracted by the colors .
  When using automatic waterers , the birds always have clean water and no water wastage.
  If you are energetic and active birds have attention because usually consume more food than usual .
 
6. FREQUENTLY QUESTIONS ON INCUBATION
Here are described some of the more common problems and how to solve them hatching.
FAQs - Frequently Questions
Problems
  Low hatchability
  Possible Causes
 
1. When the egg is not fertilized an egg;
2. The eggs were infected by germs;
3. Errors in the settings of incubation;
4. The health of the parent birds;
5. Failures at the turn of the eggs;
  Resolution
 
1. Check the source of the egg and its provenance;
2. Disinfect the incubator;
3. Check incubation settings, particularly in relation to temperature;
4. Reviewing health care of the parent bird;
5. Check if the turning of the eggs occurs within the normal;
   
  A chick is born ahead of schedule or a chick is born with deformations
  Possible Causes
 
1. The temperature is too high;
2. The turning of the eggs was not the result of normal form
  Resolution
 
1. Lowering the temperature of the incubator about 0.5 ° C (1 ° F)
2. Check if the function of turning the eggs is OFF / off
   
  A chick is born later than expected
  Possible Causes
 
1. The temperature is too low
  Resolution
 
1. Increasing the incubator temperature of about 0.5 ° C (1 ° F)
   
  The dates vary hatching egg to egg
(pups are born not all at once but over a long period of time)
  Possible Causes
 
1. The eggs were stored for long periods of time;
2. Different incubation temperatures
  Resolution
 
1. Set deadlines for eggs stored appropriately
2. Check the temperature differences in the incubator (sunlight, room temperature incubation, etc.).
How to protect incubated eggs, if there is a power cut
If the power is cut off and come back within 2-3 hours will be no large effects on hatching of eggs from the incubation room is a controlled environment. However, if the incubation to stop due to a malfunction of the incubator should be adopted as a temporary measure, a blanket to cover the incubator so that the temperature stabilized as far as possible. Then you must contact the manufacturer or dealer urgency of the incubator and technical assistance.